CLASSIFICATION OF BUFO : COMMON TOAD

PHYLUM :- CHORDATA (Notochord, dorsal tubular nerve cord present and gill slits present )

Group :- CRANIATA ( Definite head. Cranium with brain present )

Sub-phylum :- VERTEBRATA ( vertebral column present)

Division :- GNATHOSTOMATA ( Jaws and paired appendages present )

Super class :-  TETRAPODA ( Paired limbs, lungs, bony skeleton and cornified skin)

Class :- AMPHIBIA ( Scaleless glandular skin , have 3 chambered heart , cold blooded, 2 occipital condyles, can live in water and land both )

Order :- ANURA OR SALIENTIA (Tail, external gills and gill-slits absent. both hind limbs and fore limbs well developed ).

Sub-order :-  PROCOELA ( Vertebrae procoels. Ribs absent )

Genus :- Bufo

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION

Bufo has world-wide distribution. They are abundantly found in India, U.S.A. and Pacific State of Alaska. Miocene to Recent.

HABIT AND HABITAT

Bufo is terrestrial, nocturnal, hiding under logs and stones or in burrows in day. It enters water only to breed and spawn.

bufo

GENERAL CHARACTERSTICS OF BUFO : COMMON TOAD

  • Commonly called true toad.
  • It differs from frog in having rough, dry and warty skin with more poison glands than mucous glands. The skin is more or less of protective nature than respiratory.
  • Body divided into head and trunk. Head contains mouth large paired eyes, nostrils and tympanum.
  • Behind eyes there is a pair of large parotid poison glands.
  • Hind limbs contain 4 claw like digits and thumb pad or adhesive pads.
  • Forelimbs and Hind limbs are short. Toes provided with horny tips and poorly developed.
  • Maxillary teeth, sternum absent and ventral parts of pectoral girdle overlap (arciferous). Sacral vertebra has dilated transverse processes. Vertebrae procoelous. Urostyle with double condyle.
  • Liver is bilobed. Glands of swammerdams absent.
  • Eggs are pigmented and laid in gelatinous string. Young toads mature in many years.

Special features

The parotid glands of the toad secrete two toxic substances, bufotalus and bufogus. These toxins cause nausea, respiratory and muscular disturbances and also effect heart functioning, if swallowed by man. Bufo melanostictus is found upto 3000 meters in the Himalayas.

Identification

Since this Anura contains parotid glands and above features, hence it is Bufo.

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