CLASSIFICATION OF EQUUS CABALLUS (HORSE)
PHYLUM :- CHORDATA (Notochord, dorsal tubular nerve cord present and gill slits present)
GROUP :- CRANIATA (Definite head. Cranium with brain present)
SUB-PHYLUM :- VERTEBRATA (vertebral column present)
DIVISION :- GNATHOSTOMATA ( Jaws and paired appendages present)
SUPER CLASS :- TETRAPODA ( Paired limbs, lungs, bony skeleton and cornified skin).
CLASS :-MAMMALIA ( Body covered with hairs. females have mammary glands).
SUB-CLASS :- THERIA (Viviparous).
INFRA-CLASS :- EUTHERIA (Placental mammals, vagina single).
ORDER :- PERISSODACTYLA (Odd-toed hoofed mammals).
GENUS :- Equus
SPECIES :- caballus
- Cosmopolitan. Found in Eurasia, Africa, and tropical America.
HABIT AND HABITAT
Horses live in herds in open plains and grasslands. Wild Przewalski’s horses live in deserts between Mongolia and China. Horses are domesticated. One of the fastest running animals.
GENERAL CHARACTERSTICS OF EQUUS CABALLUS (HORSE)
- Commonly called as modern horse.
- Horses support their entire body weight on the third toe of each foot. Other toes have atrophied to rudimentary splints. This is excellent adaptation for swift running on the open plains.
- Body of horse is massively built and divided into head, neck, trunk, chest, abdomen and tail.
- Head is small and characteristic. Teeth adapted for grazing and specialized for grinding course siliceous grasses. Jaws are elongated typically ‘horse’ like. Ears shorter.
- Neck is long and mobile. Mane longer and pendant.
- Trunk is large.
- Each foot ends in a large hoof. Metatarsals and tarsals fused. Hind legs and fore legs well developed and adapted for fast running.
- Tail is bushy completely covered with long hairs.
Horse shows following features-
- Horse is a very familiar animal to man.
- It provides excellent evidence for organic evolution. It has been very useful animal to mankind, used in wars and transport,
- Horse racing is most commercial and ammusing game. Equus przewalskii of Mongolia is the only surviving wild horse from which nearly 50-60 domesticated horses have been derived,
- Horse symbolizes truth and secrecy. Very familiar saying that from ‘Horses mouth’.
- Horse also symbolizes strength or power of heavy machines such 2 horse power, 5 horse power etc. Horses also form part of Army for wars.
- This mammal has peculiar jaws and above feature, hence it is Equus caballus.