CLASSIFICATION OF EUGLENA
PHYLUM :- PROTOZOA (Unicellular)
SUB-PHYLUM :- PLASMODROMA (Cilia absent, locomotion by pseudopodia)
CLASS :- MASTIGOPHORA (One or more flagella)
SUB-CLASS :- PHYTOMASTIGINA (Chromatophores present)
ORDER :- EUGLENIDA (Longer forms with one or more flagella)
FAMILY :- EUGLENACEAE
GENUS :- Euglena
It is found everywhere. Cosmopolitan.
HABIT AND HABITAT
Euglena is a solitary flagellate found commonly in fresh-water ponds, ditches, pods and slow running streams or in brackish water.
GENERAL CHARACTERSTICS OF EUGLENA
- Body of the animal is simple fusiform, spindle shaped plump like red or green coloured measuring 50 to 100 microns in length.
- Cytoplasm differentiated into ectoplasm and endoplasm.
- Outer covering is called as pellicle which is marked by spiral striations called as myonema.
- Cytoplasm below pellicle is differentiated into ectoplasm and endoplasm. Latter contains various cell organelles.
- Anterior end has funnel shaped cytosome which leads into a flask-shaped cytopharynx.
- On one side is a red mass of hematochrome called stigmata which is photosensitive.
- Just below the cytopharynx is a large contractile vacuole surrounded by accessory vacuoles.
- Endoplasm contains nucleus, chloroplast and other ultrastructural organelles.
- Just below cytopharynx there are 2 rounded blepharoplasts, each giving a small flagella which unite to form flagellar thickening from where a long flagellum arises projecting from cytosome. Contractile vacuole is surrounded by accessory contractile vacuoles.
- Chloroplast occurring in 7 to 8 thick bodies surrounding a central paramylum granules and scattered pyrenoid bodies. Nucleus contains nuclear membrane, cell membrane, chromatid bodies.
- Nutrition holophytic or saprophytic and reproduction by longitudinal division or encystment.
- Euglena does not take solid food but lives entirely by autotrophic and saprozoic nutrition.
- It is unique animal with floral mode of nutrition and faunal mode of life and reproductions.
- Euglena viridis, E. rubra, E. sanguinea and E. fusiformis are common species. They respond to various stimuli such as light, heat, etc.
Euglena is unique animal with floral mode of nutrition and faunal mode of reproduction.
The animal has chloroplast and all above features, hence it is Euglena.