EUGLENA

CLASSIFICATION OF EUGLENA

PHYLUM :- PROTOZOA (Unicellular)

SUB-PHYLUM :- PLASMODROMA (Cilia absent, locomotion by pseudopodia)

CLASS :- MASTIGOPHORA (One or more flagella)

SUB-CLASS :- PHYTOMASTIGINA (Chromatophores present)

ORDER :- EUGLENIDA (Longer forms with one or more flagella)

FAMILY :- EUGLENACEAE

GENUS :- Euglena

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION

  • It is found everywhere. Cosmopolitan.

HABIT AND HABITAT

  • Euglena is a solitary flagellate found commonly in fresh-water ponds, ditches, pods and slow running streams or in brackish water.

EUGLENA DIAGRAM PROTOZOA

GENERAL CHARACTERSTICS OF EUGLENA

  • Body of the animal is simple fusiform, spindle shaped plump like red or green coloured measuring 50 to 100 microns in length. 
  • Cytoplasm differentiated into ectoplasm and endoplasm.
  • Outer covering is called as pellicle which is marked by spiral striations called as myonema. 
  • Cytoplasm below pellicle is differentiated into ectoplasm and endoplasm. Latter contains various cell organelles. 
  • Anterior end has funnel shaped cytosome which leads into a flask-shaped cytopharynx.
  • On one side is a red mass of hematochrome called stigmata which is photosensitive. 
  • Just below the cytopharynx is a large contractile vacuole surrounded by accessory vacuoles.
  • Endoplasm contains nucleus, chloroplast and other ultrastructural organelles. 
  • Just below cytopharynx there are 2 rounded blepharoplasts, each giving a small flagella which unite to form flagellar thickening from where a long flagellum arises projecting from cytosome. Contractile vacuole is surrounded by accessory contractile vacuoles.
  • Chloroplast occurring in 7 to 8 thick bodies surrounding a central paramylum granules and scattered pyrenoid bodies. Nucleus contains nuclear membrane, cell membrane, chromatid bodies. 
  • Nutrition holophytic or saprophytic and reproduction by longitudinal division or encystment.
  • Euglena does not take solid food but lives entirely by autotrophic and saprozoic nutrition.
  • It is unique animal with floral mode of nutrition and faunal mode of life and reproductions.
  • Euglena viridis, E. rubra, E. sanguinea and E. fusiformis are common species. They respond to various stimuli such as light, heat, etc.
EUGLENA PROTOZOA

SPECIAL FEATURES

  • Euglena is unique animal with floral mode of nutrition and faunal mode of reproduction.

IDENTIFICATION

  • The animal has chloroplast and all above features, hence it is Euglena.

EUGLENA PROTOZOA
EUGLENA PROTOZOA
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