BULL FROG : HOPLOBATRACHUS TIGRINUS
CLASSIFICATION OF HOPLOBATRACHUS TIGRINUS : BULL FROG
PHYLUM :- CHORDATA (Notochord, dorsal tubular nerve cord present and gill slits present )
Group :- CRANIATA ( Definite head. Cranium with brain present )
Sub-phylum :- VERTEBRATA ( vertebral column present)
Division :- GNATHOSTOMATA ( Jaws and paired appendages present )
Super class :- TETRAPODA ( Paired limbs, lungs, bony skeleton and cornified skin)
Class :- AMPHIBIA ( Scaleless glandular skin , have 3 chambered heart , cold blooded, 2 occipital condyles, can live in water and land both )
Family :- RANIDAE ( Teeth in upper jaw )
Genus :- Hoplobatrachus
Species :- tigrinus
Myanmar, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Nepal. It has been introduced in Madagascar and India’s Andaman Islands.
HABIT AND HABITAT
Bull frog Found in ponds and in hibernation, in dried mud of pond. In water frog is free swimmer and on land adapted for leaping and hopping. They feed on various type of insects, invertebrates, mice, shrews, young frogs, earthworms, roundworms, juvenile snakes, and small birds.
GENERAL CHARACTERSTICS OF HOPLOBATRACHUS TIGRINUS : BULL FROG
- Also known as Indus Valley bull frog or Indian bull frog, popular name Asian bull frog, Asean bull frog or Asia bull frog.
- Body measures 12 to 20 cm. Dorsal surface is olive colour with dark coloured patches and ventral surface yellowish white.
- Hind limbs longer than forelimbs which help in leaping and hopping.
- up and down movements of the foor of the buccal cavity, showing respiratory, movements.
- Distinguish between male and female frogs by copulatory pads in the hand of male.
- Body is divided into two regions head and trunk.
- Head contains External nares. These are two small openings laying near the anterior tip of snout.
- Eyes, they are the most distinct parts of the head. Each eye is large, bright, protuberant having golden iris and black rounded pupil. Each eye has an upper large and stationary eyelid and a lower small mobile eyelid.
- Nictitating membrane, The upper part of lower eyelid forms a transparent nictitating membrane.
- Tympanum and tympanic membrane. It is in the form of circular area found posterior to each eye. It forms external boundary of the middle ear. The external ear is absent in frog. eye.
- Vocal sac, Found in males only under the head.
- Trunk. It forms major portion of the body. Note the characteristics raised hump. Trunk contains anterior forelimbs and posterior hind limbs.
- Forelimbs, Each comprises of upper arm, forearm and hand containing wrist, palm and four digits provided with copulatory and articular pads.
Hind limbs, These are folded at rest and each comprises of thigh, shank and foot. Foot is made up of ankle, sole and five toes.
Since the frog contains above feature and raised hump hence it is Hoplobatrachus tigrinus or Bull Frog.
- Book of Practical Zoology VERTEBRATE by S.S.LAL – Rastogi Publications.