Nanoparticles are minute particles that are even smaller than micro particles can range from 1 to 100 nanometres. Human eyes cannot detect nanoparticles. Regardless of its smaller size it can be use in various areas including health care.
Although there are very challenges in production of nanoparticles there uses and manufacturing has been increased greatly in recent years. It is because this small size particle can be use to perform endless functions.
PRODUCTION OF NANOPARTICLES
Basically there are two processes by which nanoparticles can be prepared
Pyrolysis is a process of heating any organic material in an inert atmosphere at very high temperature even above its decomposition temperature. Heating at such an elevated temperature will lead to breaking of chemical bonds therefore its original chemical composition will be altered.
Comminution is a process in which an average sized particle is treated in such a way that they reduced to smaller fragments. It can be done by varieties of methods such as grinding, cutting, crushing and vibrating. Generally this process is performed for reducing actual size of mineral ores.
Energy requirement for performing such processes can be explain by Bonds law It states that Total work, useful in breakage is inversely proportional to square root of diameter of the product particles.
APPLICATION OF NANOPARTICLES
Due to its smaller size it gives many advantages in the field of medicines.
- Nanoparticles can be use to destroy tumour through hyperthermia in this an alternating magnetic field is generated causes them to heat and destroy tissue on the local scale.
- In targeted tissue delivery system nanocapsule or a liposome are created in such a way that they could identify particular cell precisely.
- Nanoparticles are also constructed in such a way that they can be used to treat certain neurological disorder such as Parkinson disease or Alzheimer disease. The drugs can be delivering to brain through inhalation.
- Nanoparticles can be used to enhance image of organs as well tumour and other diseased in tissue in our body.
- Magnetic nanoparticles have used to replace radioactive technique for tracking the spread of cancer along the lymph nodes. For following methods nanoparticles are design in such a way that they should be able to recognise particular cell or disease state precisely
- The use of nanoparticles in positron emission tomography can enhance its fluorescent imaging.
- Nanoparticles can be used in ultrasounds for enhancing its images.
Many scaffold structure for tissue and bone repair can be build using nanoparticles or nanofibres example; nanoparticle of calcium hydroxyapatile, a natural component of bone, used in combination with collagen for future tissue repair therapies.
RISK ASSOCIATED WITH NANOPARTICLES
Nanoparticles have provided great approach in diagnosis and medicines but there are few challenges that cannot be ignored.
- There is still very little detail regarding the fate of nanoparticles that are introduced into the body or whether they have undesirable effects on our body.
- Fire from cooking stoves and from smoking tobacco generates several nanoparticles that lead to premature deaths. The result of several studies indicates that nanoparticles in bulk can cause a cell to absorb the particles. Due to which cell can be damage or can undergo genetic mutation.
Such a small structure whose existence is commonly not even noticed can make very big difference in our life. Its impact is both positive and negative to our life.
Treatment and diagnostic approaches based on the use of nanoparticles are expected to have important benefits for medicines in the future, but the use of nanoparticles also presents significant challenges, particularly regarding impact on human health.