HISTORY

The initial advantage of becoming multicellular is the opportunity for increase in size. Larger organisms are less subject to attack; they have greater reserves within the body to withstand temporary unfavourable conditions. Multicellularity has been achieved independently perhaps four or five times in plants, Mesozoa, sponges and Metazoa.

Sponges belonging to phylum Porifera (L. Porus, pores+ferre, to bear) are sessile organisms with a low degree of individuality and cellular organisation. Sponges appear like plants being sessile and attached to rocks, shells and other solid objects. Most sponges are marine distributed from arctic to tropical seas, living from the low tide line to depths of 6 kilometers. One family (Spongillidae) is distributed in freshwater. Many sponges are drab coloured and others are brilliantly red, orange, yellow, violet, blue and black. The sponges have commercial importance being used in bathroom or in automobiles.

DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS​ OF PORIFERA

  • Cellular grade of organization.
  • Body bears several pores and hence the name Porifera. 
  • Presence of canal system. 
  • Skeleton of calcareous or siliceous spicules or horny spongin fibers.
  • Commonly called as sponges. 
  • Asexual reproduction by gemmules and sexual reproduction by sperm and ova.

CLASSIFICATION OF PHYLUM PORIFERA

PHYLUM PORIFERA

CLASS I CALCAREA

  • Skeleton of calcareous spicules.
  • Body asconoid, syconoid or leuconoid.

Order 1 Homocoela ( = Asconosa)

    1. Skeleton of calcareous spicules.
    2. Body asconoid, syconoid or leuconoid.
    3. Example :- Leueosolenia, Clathrina.
LEUCOSOLENIA, PHYLUM PORIFERA, PORIFERA
LEUCOSOLENIA
CLATHRINA OR OLYNTHUS PHYLUM PORIFERA
CLATHRINA

Order 2 Heterocoela (= Syconosa)

    1. Syconoid canal system.
    2. Solitary or colonial.
    3. Example :- Sycon, Scypha, Grantia.
SYCON OR SCYPHA, PHYLUM PORIFERA, PORIFERA
SYCON
GRANTIA, PORIFERA, PHYLUM PORIFERA
GRANTIA

CLASS II HEXACTINELLIDA

  • Six-rayed siliceous spicules.
  • Exclusively marine.

Order 1 Hexasterophora

    1. Spicules hexasters.
    2. Usually attached to substratum.
    3. Example :- Euplectella, Staurocalyptus.
EUPLECTELLA, porifera, phylum porifera
EUPLECTELLA

Order 2 Amphidiscophora

    1. Spicules amphidisks.
    2. Attached to substratum by root tufts.
    3. Example :- Hyalonema, Pheronema.
HYALONEMA, PORIFERA, PHYLUM PORIFERA
HYALONEMA
PHERONEMA, PORIFERA , PHYLUM PORIFERA
PHERONEMA

CLASS III DEMOSPONGIAE​

  • Spicules of Spongin fibers or Siliceous spicules or both.
  • Large, solitary or colonial.

Order 1 Myxospongila

    1. Spicules absent.
    2. Simple structure.
    3. Example :- Oscarella, Halisarea.
OSCARELLA
OSCARELLA

Order 2 Tetraetinellida

    1. Tetraxon spicules.
    2. Spongin present.
    3. Example :- Chondrilla, Geodia, Chondrosia.
CHONDRILLA
CHONDRILLA

Order 3 Monaxonida

    1. Spicules monaxon.
    2. Fresh-water of marine.
    3. Example :-Suberites, Tethya, Cliona, Ephydatia, Chalina, Spongilla, Halichondria, Raispailia, Poterion, Haliclona, Microciona
TETHYA
TETHYA
CLIONA
CLIONA
EPHYDATIA
EPHYDATIA
CHALINA
CHALINA
SPONGILLA
SPONGILLA
HALICHONDRIA
HALICHONDRIA
POTERION
POTERION
MICROCIONA
MICROCIONA

Order 2 Tetraetinellida

    1. Spicules of spongin only.
    2. Horny sponges of massive sizes.
    3. Example :- Euspongia, Hippospongia, Hircinia.
EUSPONGIA
EUSPONGIA
HIPPOSPONGIA
HIPPOSPONGIA
OUR POSTS

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *