CLASSIFICATION OF PIPA AMERICANA : SURINAM TOAD
PHYLUM :- CHORDATA (Notochord, dorsal tubular nerve cord present and gill slits present )
Group :- CRANIATA ( Definite head. Cranium with brain present )
Sub-phylum :- VERTEBRATA ( vertebral column present)
Division :- GNATHOSTOMATA ( Jaws and paired appendages present )
Super class :- TETRAPODA ( Paired limbs, lungs, bony skeleton and cornified skin)
Class :- AMPHIBIA ( Scaleless glandular skin , have 3 chambered heart , cold blooded, 2 occipital condyles, can live in water and land both )
Order :- ANURA OR SALIENTIA (Tail, external gills and gill-slits absent. both hind limbs and fore limbs well developed ).
Sub-order :- OPISTHOCOELA ( Vertebrae opisthocoelous, ribs free)
Family :- DISCOGLOSSIDAE ( Tongue and eyelids present. Adults with ribs )
Genus :- Pipa
Species :- americana
GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION :
Pipa americana is commonly found in North America as well as South America.
Habit and habitat
Pipa americana is Strictly Aquatic.
GENERAL CHARACTERSTICS OF PIPA AMERICANA
- Pipa Americana is Commonly called as Surinam toad.
- Animal has shabby looks with a triangular and depressed head snout and large trunk contains small eyes.
- Dermal papillae are present. Skin contains poison glands.
- Forelimbs are small and papillae star-shaped, having sensory processes, while hind limbs are fully webbed.
- Upper part of snout is produced into irregular flaps and tentacles.
- Jaws do not contain teeth but have horny substitute.
- Eustachian tube opens into pharynx.
- Vertebrae opisthocoelous
The breeding habit is peculiar. Female toad shows parental care. During breeding season, the skin of female becomes soft. The male clasps the female and presses the female and eggs come out. The male also releases sperms which fertilize eggs. The fertilized eggs attach to the back of the female. Each egg is enclosed in a vascular pouch covered with operculum. The embryo develops yolk sac and vascular tail for exchange of metabolites. Gills are not formed and fully-developed young ones come out from the pouch. The female changes its back skin after the young escape.
Since this Anura contains small head and above features, hence it is Pipa americana