CLASSIFICATION OF PLEURONECTES (FLAT FISH)​

Phylum :- CHORDATA (Notochord and dorsal tubular nerve cord present and gill-slits present).

Group :- CRANIATA (Cranium with brain present).

Subphylum :- VERTEBRATA (Vertebral column present).

Division :- GNATHOSTOMATA (Jaws and paired appendages present).

Super class :- PISCES (Paired fins , gills and skin with scales)

Class :- OSTEICHTHYES (Bony fishes).

SUB-CLASS :- ACTINOPTYERGII (Ray finned fish ).

SUPER ORDER :- TELEOISTEI (Bony fish proper).

Order :- PLEURONECTIFORMSES (Flat-fish).

Family :- PLEURONECTIDAE

Genus :- Pleuronectes

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION

  • Pleuronectes is found in South America, India, Malayasia and. Southern Hemisphere.

HABIT AND HABITAT

  • Pleuronectes is a marine bottom dweller in coastal waters lying on side. It feeds on molluscs. It swims by undulating movements. Indian water flat-fish is characterized by banded colouration.

PLEURONECTES (FLAT FISH)​

GENERAL CHARACTERSTICS OF PLEURONECTES (FLAT FISH)​

  • Commonly called as flat fish. Body divided into head, trunk and tail.
  • Fish is strongly compressed and asymmetrically flattened. Head is asymmetrical, the posterior cranium is normal but anterior cranium is twisted with two orbits on one side in the adult and hence the fish is sinistral. Eyes are found on left side. In some cases eyes can be dextral i.e., lying on right side. Nostrils also on left side. 
  • Body scales are imbricate. Cycloid or ctenoid. 
  • Mouth is narrow and protractile. It has sharp chisel-like teeth on the jaws and flattened crushing teeth in the pharynx.
  • Right side is white, left side is pigmented while lower side is silvery white.
  • The dorsal and anal fins are elongated, expanded and continue upto beginning of tail. Dorsal and anal fins supported by fin rays. Pectoral fins are placed high up and ventral fin below pectoral fin. Caudal fin fan shaped.
  • Air Bladder is physoclistous. Lateral line and operculum present spiracle absent.
PLEURONECTES (FLAT FISH)​

SPECIAL FEATURES

  • Young Pleuronectes is bilaterally symmetrical, but adult fish is asymmetrical. It lies on one side and lower eye migrates around so that both eyes are on upper surface.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE

  • The flat fish is also an important food fish and is sought commercially to a great extent.

IDENTIFICATION

  • This fish

    has flat body, both eyes on left and above features, hence it is Pleuronectes.

PLEURONECTES (FLAT FISH)​
PLEURONECTES (FLAT FISH)​

REFERENCES

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