CLASSIFICATION OF SCOLIODON​

Phylum :- CHORDATA (Notochord and dorsal tubular nerve cord present and gill-slits present).

Group :- CRANIATA (Cranium with brain present).

Subphylum :- VERTEBRATA (Vertebral column present)

Super class :- PISCES (Paired fins , gills and skin with scales).

Division :- GNATHOSTOMATA (Jaws and paired appendages present).

Class :-   CHONDRICHTHYES {=ELASMOBRANCHI } (Endoskeleton cartilaginous. Scales usually placoid. spiral valve in intestine).

Sub-class :-  SELACHI (Sharks and rays. Gills in seperate clefts. Cloaca present).

Order :- PLEUROTREMATA {=SQUALI} (Pleuro-sides , trema-opening. gill slits lateral, pectoral fins small).

Family :- SCYLLIDAE (Asterospondylus. First dorsal fin without spine)

Genus :- SCOLIODON (DOGFISH)

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION

  • Scoliodon has wide distribution. About 4 species are found all along the Indian sea coast. Its presence has been reported from Zanzibar, Srilanka to Malay Archipelago, East Indies, Philippine Islands, Mexico to Panama, Cuba, West Indies and South America. 

HABITAT AND HABITS

  • The natural home of Scoliodon is the sea, but some live in estuaries and even ascend the rivers. They are predacious active swimmers and voracious feeders attacking their prey with their powerful jaws.
SCOLIODON , DOGFISH

GENERAL CHARACTERSTICS OF SCOLIODON

  • Commonly called dogfish or dog shark, approximately 60 cm long.
  • Spindle-shaped body, divided into head, trunk and tail.
  • Dorsal and lateral sides of body pigmented dark grey or slaty grey, while the ventral side white.
  • Head dorsoventrally compressed and flattened into snout having ventrally slit-like mouth, obliquely situated nostrils and Internally situated protuberant eyes. A little behind eyes are live pairs of lateral gill-clefts.
  • Trunk bears paired fins. Dorsally there are 1 dorsal fin, 2nd dorsal fin and a dorsal caudal pit Ventral anterior pectoral fins, paired posterior pelvic fins.
  • Heterocercal tail turned upwards and caudal fin with upper epicardial and lower hypochordial lobes.
  • A pair of pigmented lateral lines extends from head to tail.
  • Scoliodon exhibits sexual dimorphism. Males are easily recognized by having a pair of intromittent organs, called as claspers. Cloaca between 2 pelvic fins.  Male  mature at a length of 33 cm while female species mature at 36 cm.
  • When reproducing, the female Scolidon laticuadus has a minimum of 8 to a maximum of 19 embryos when conceiving.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE

  • Scoliodon has great educational and experimental value because of its availability and size and is a very favourite dissection fish for both undergraduate and postgraduate students.

SPECIAL FEATURES

  • Sharks are used as human food in many countries. Shark’s fins are dried and them boiled to yield a gelatinous substance favoured for soups. The tanned shark skin shagreen is used to case fine books, jewel boxes and sword handles, etc. Sharks are nuisance to fishermen because they tear nets, steal captured fishes and take out bait or fish from hooks,

IDENTIFICATION

  • Since the animal has raised tail, pointed snout, and above features, hence it is Scoliodon ( DOGFISH ).
SCOLIODON : DOGFISH
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