CLASSIFICATION OF TAPEWORM : TAENIA SOLIUM
PHYLUM :- PLATYHELMINTHES (Organ grade, acoelomate flatworms. )
SUB-CLASS :- EUCESTODA (Mesozoic tapeworms, larva with 6 hooks. )
ORDER :- CYCLOPHYLLIDEA (Scolex with four suckers. )
FAMILY :- TAENIIDAE (Uterus with lateral branches.)
GENUS :- Taenia
SPECIES :- solium
The tapeworm is found endemic in the pork consuming areas. Its infection is abundant in India, China, Czechoslovakia, Yogoslavia and Germany.
HABIT AND HABITAT
Fasciola hepatica is found in the bile ducts of liver and biliary passages of sheep, ox, horse, dog, elephant, man, monkey, deer and kangaroo. In sites they are seen protruding through bile ducts and liver substance.
GENERAL CHARACTERSTICS OF TAPEWORM : TAENIA SOLIUM
- Commonly called as Pork tapeworm.
- Body divided into scolex, neck, immature, mature and gravid segments.
- Scolex serves as hold-fast organ. It contains 4 suckers and a rounded rostellum. Suckers contain radial muscles.
- Rostellum at its base contains double row of 28 to 32 hooks.
- Neck region is area of proliferation.
- Mature segment contains well developed hermaphrodite genital organs. Gravid segments contain branched uterus filled with onchospheres.
- Life-cycle includes two hosts (i) man as definitive host and (ii) pig as intermediate host. Longitudinal and transverse excretory canals are seen in all segments.
- In villages man deficates in the open field. Pig eats contaminated human faeces containing onchospheres and becomes infected.
- Onchospheres or hexacanth larvae develop into Cysticerous larvae or bladder worm called as Cysticercus cellulose, which encyst in thigh, chest, shoulder muscles of the pig. Such muscle is called as Measly pork.
- When man eats inadequately cooked hot dog or measly pork, it becomes infected and Taenia solium develops into adult in the intestine.
It causes various diseases in man like anaemia, secondary anaemia, eosinophilia, diarrhoea, haemorrhage, abdominal pain, nausea and insomnia, etc. Upto 13% eosinophilia is caused by it. It also causes metabolic disturbances in the host.
Preventive measures : The hot dogs are very common in affluent. Eating of measly pork should be avoided. The pig flesh should be examined for bladder cysts and contaminated flesh should not be allowed for marketing. Inadequately cooked pork should not be allowed and thus infection of Taeniasis can be prevented.
The specimen contains scolex, neck and squarish segments and all above features and hence it is Taenia solium.